RSA is a public encryption scheme. Its security assumptions are based on complexity theory: computing the product of two prime numbers is easy (polynomial time), but there is no efficient algorithm for factoring them back (so far, all factorization methods are in the non-polynomial class).

The keys for the RSA algorithm are generated the following way:

1. Choose two different large random prime numbers p and q

2. Calculate n = pq

n is the modulus for the public key and the private keys

3. Calculate the totient: phi =(p-1)(q-1).

4. Choose an integer e such that 1 < e < phi, and e is coprime to phi

e is released as the public key exponent

5. Compute d to satisfy the congruence relation d*e ≡ 1 mod phi (the remainder of d*e / phi is 1)

d is kept as the private key exponent

The public key is made of the modulus n and the public (or encryption) exponent e.

The private key is made of the modulus n and the private (or decryption) exponent d which must be kept secret.

Encrypting a message: c = m ^ e (mod n)

Decrypting a message: m = c ^ d (mod n)

**Example:**

p = 29, q = 31

n = p * q = 29 * 31 = 899

phi = (p -1) * (q – 1) = (29 – 1) * (31 – 1) = 840

e = 11

d * e ≡ 1 mod phi => (d * 11) / phi will give us a remainder of one.

(611 * 11) = 6721 and 6721 / 840 = 8 with remainder 1 => d = 611

C = M^e mod n

C = 119^11 mod 899 = 595

M = C^d mod n

M = 595^611 mod 899 = 119

**Problem 1: Decrypting RSA with Known factorization**

You have the ciphertext as follows. In order to decrypt it, you need to factorize n into p and q, compute phi and find d.

Then we can find the original message m.

c = 28822365203577929536184039125870638440692316100772583657817939349051546473185

n = 70736025239265239976315088690174594021646654881626421461009089480870633400973

e = 3

Note:

1. you can do known factorization here: http://www.factordb.com.

2. Useful gmpy2 functions:

invert(e, phi) returns d such that d * e == 1 modulo phi, or 0 if no such y exists.

powmod(x, y, n) returns (x^y mod n).

mul(x,y) returns x * y.

**Problem 2: Decrypting RSA with Fermat Factorization**

Implement and try out Fermat's Factorization Algorithm! Then try to break the following RSA key and obtain the original message m.

c = 6545641259678115729576084854615092235417811978956089202968254

35452302563551217882689453762450350456257099687251554693360645992

25736216846011508984287507253086925409961785815345851073048832712

76289781277480045076368936135073440658451406476943496162197057574

65949239924311260160127009283418952554522720051840260714703523494

07141155977270187592823724898912262564865723567776848651541777197

60784173652562015059686039344439864111405147227858838886250612107

31765750448

n = 1209143407476550975641959824312993703149920344437422193042293

13157274529866269628427992862241244125565239149324141417053731978

42983678216547267810896007804983694021674433638626218869439704688

19656731959468058528787895569936536904387979815183897568006750131

87985126375349612009820596644201044560153430548378375922651012086

06337708145401664194958176663124744840618854352958704360557277220

73738662516644186716532891328742452198364825809508602208516407566

578212780807

e = 65537

Note: Useful gmpy2 functions

• is_square(x) returns True if x is a perfect square, False otherwise.

• isqrt(x) returns the integer square root of an integer x. x must be >= 0.

This assignment has been answered **6 times** in private sessions.

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